By Robin J. Crawford on April 16 2018 20:04:42
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the ‘visual contact task’ and the ‘unsolvable task’. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds.
All dogs should get as much exercise as possible. A daily walk is sufficient for most breeds. But most small dog breeds, for example Toy dogs such as Pugs, Maltese or Yorkshire Terriers, will get the majority of their required exercise needs just be walking, running and playing around indoors.
Trust us, not all mixed breed dogs look like junkyard mutts (which come on, are pretty cute too). In fact, here is a rule of thumb: when one gorgeous dog breed mates with another gorgeous dog breed, the end results are -- wait for it -- pretty darn gorgeous. That is science, baby! Here are a number of wonderful examples of some of the most adorable mutts out there.
No one is suggesting that people should not get a dog from a shelter or rescue if that’s what they want to do. Many breed clubs were among the first dog rescue groups in the U.S. Breeders love dogs and believe in rescue. But people should also have the option to purchase a purebred dog from a dedicated breeder without harassment or guilt. And breeders should be able to breed their dogs without punitive laws.
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