You do not have to have own a large house to own a large dog (although a tiny apartment is not going to be big enough for one of the giant breeds). If you can take him outside for a good hour of two of exercise every day... a large dog can live in a small house or apartment just fine.
Most all dogs will get along well with children if they are raised with them. However, some breeds have a protective streak in them and may become aggressive with children who get to close at meal time (although this should not be tolerated), or aggressive with children they have never met. These breeds will likely see the children as being underneath themselves in the "pack order" and may try to dominate them.
The following list uses a wide interpretation of "breed." Breeds are usually categorized by the functional type from which the breed was developed. The basic types are companion dogs, guard dogs, hunting dogs, herding dogs, and working dogs, although there are many other types and subtypes. Breeds listed here may be traditional breeds with long histories as registered breeds, rare breeds with their own registries, or new breeds that may still be under development.
When large dogs eliminate, they eliminate a lot more than small dogs. More goes in and more comes out of large breeds. Which is something to keep in mind if your dog will live inside - especially if you live in a high rise apartment and he will have to be litter box trained (there is always going to be more to clean up).
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